The construction of buildings of various types involves several stages. The first always requires land work. This activity involves the preparation of the site, development, digging a pit, laying trenches. Also, planning and removal of soil, landscaping. The quality of such work determines the durability of the foundation and equipped communications.
Types of jobs
During construction, 2 types of land works are required:
- under the foundation;
- under communication.
The foundation is installed on the recesses. If they have a width of 3 meters, then they are called pits. When the length is greater than the width, then these are trenches. The recesses of separately located foundations are called pits. The dimensions pits, trenches depend on the parameters of the foundation. Communications are located in trenches, the depth of which is established by the norms of SNiP.
Preparation and support work
Usually land plot requires prior preparation. It includes cleaning the territory from garbage, trees. The dismantling of buildings and foundations is also carried out. It is only necessary to consider that the trees are removed on the basis of the permission of environmental organizations. In addition, you need to prepare access areas for equipment.
Ancillary work (land) consists in water disposal, lowering the level of groundwater, loosening dense soils. Then the installation of the walls of the pits and compaction of the soil.
Evaluation of the work
To perform the assessment, you need to determine how many cubic meters of soil you need to move. If you establish labor productivity, you will be able to choose how land works will be performed.
The calculation of the volume of work helps to organize the process competently due to certain factors:
- the selection of a suitable method and means of work;
- soil removal and distribution;
- approval of the price and duration of the work.
During the design, the volume of activity will be calculated on the basis of working drawings, and during production - by measurements.
Ground development methods
There are many ways to dig a pit. The method of performing the work is determined by the properties of the soil, volume, type of structure. It also depends on hydrogeological conditions.
Earthworks can be carried out manually, as well as by mechanical means. The method that allows you to complete everything in a short time is selected. If the processing area is large, then the mechanized method is more often used.
Manual digging of the trench is performed with a small amount of work, as well as in cases where it is not possible to use special equipment. Usually this option is used for digging pits for pile foundations, as well as for communications equipment.
For manual work, shovels and spades are used. Productivity improves due to small-scale mechanization, for example, using electric and pneumatic shovels, jackhammers, crowbars. Loosening is often used, which allows you to do the job faster.
This method is used for large volumes of work. To increase execution speed, apply:
- construction excavators;
- drilling equipment.
Increase productivity by using auxiliary machines designed for transportation of soil. Digging of the trench will be carried out using these means. When this work is completed, soil ordering is performed.
How is work carried out in winter
Land work is performed in summer and winter, only in the second case there are some difficulties. This is due to soil freezing, and therefore the price of services will be higher. In winter, it is undesirable to excavate pits and trenches with a depth of less than 3 m.
Frozen soil has high mechanical strength, plastic deformation. The manifestation of these properties may be different, it all depends on the type of soil. For example, coarse-grained, gravel, sand include a minimum of water, and therefore not much freeze at low temperatures. The work in this case will be the same in winter and summer. And to work with dusty, moist and clay soils in cold weather should not be.
In winter, work is carried out by three methods:
- soil preparation;
- cutting frozen soil into blocks;
- excavation without preparatory work.
Defrosting by steam, hot water, open fire, electric shock is used. So that there is no reverse freezing, warming of the trench with the use of thermal insulation materials is used: peat fines, sawdust, shavings.
The described works are considered laborious, because they usually involve special equipment and devices. During the construction of all buildings, excavation is of paramount importance. Their cost is determined by the volume, type of soil and season.
So, the price for manual development of soil is 700-800 rubles per 1 m³. Backfill costs 350 rubles. There are companies that charge per hour.
Many accidents occur precisely with these construction works. Their reasons include:
- lack of soil fastening;
- critical level of its production without fastening;
- inappropriate dismantling of fasteners;
- work of transport in the territories of collapse;
- use of unsafe working methods.
To prevent earthworks from causing injuries, the safety rules must be strictly observed. In this area, only proven methods for protecting the life and health of workers should be used.