Of course, each person is individual. But the fact that there are many people like on each other is also an undeniable truth. How many times on the street did you take a stranger for your old friend? Or, living in a foreign city or country, met a woman or a man resembling your parents, and stuck to them with a soul?
There are more than 7 billion of us on earth, so there is nothing strange in the fact that appearance and characters are repeated. No matter how strange it may sound, but all people can be classified according to various criteria. Most of all, psychologists like to do this. There are a great many classifications of personality psychotypes, a description of some of them we will discuss later in this article.
Remove the shortcuts
We had to observe more than once, or even sin ourselves, as people are hung up with labels: “he’s stupid!”, “He doesn’t have everyone at home!”, “It’s necessary to be so slow down!”, “And this one always smiles, just like a madman, "" and he was sewing in one place ", etc. It's a shame, isn't it?
Psychology, on the basis of science, has come up with its own “labels” that not only drive a person into a narrow framework and determine his future existence, but also explain the need for such a person for society, as well as describe its uniqueness.
Think for yourself what a world would be without the ingenious ideas of the schizoid who could not be realized without the determination of the paranoid. But for these two characters to find mutual language and not kill each other, they just need hyperthym. A hysteroid can masterfully dare to convey this to the masses, while an epileptoid will control the process and observe that everything is according to the rules.
Therefore, from now on, before hanging labels, know that every flaw is the flip side of the medal of a bright personality.
Accentuation and Psychopathy
Speaking about the personality of a person, we should focus on something, so that it would be possible to classify it. In this case, accentuation helps a lot.
What is accentuation? This is a pronounced personality trait that is within normal limits, but in adverse conditions can go into pathology.
The question immediately arises: what is the norm? We will talk about this in more detail below.
There is also the concept of "psychopathy", which means a bright form of accentuation.
Accentuation is an accent, an absolutely non-pathological personality trait, that core, in fact, on which the character of a person rests and around which other necessary traits of a modern personality grow. This is the inner beast that needs to be fed, but not allowed to eat itself.
Psychopathy is something more. This term means a pathology of character that prevents a person from adapting to the world around him. Psychopathy brings great discomfort either to the person himself or to people around. It can pass from parents, be the result of improper upbringing, as well as injuries and diseases suffered in early childhood or in the prenatal period.
What is the norm?
Unfortunately, this is the very difficult question, the answer to which will vary from year to year and from nation to nation. "What is good for the Russian is death for the Chinese."
Take the American habit, which excites many Russians - to put their feet on the table. For them - this is the norm, for us - a clear deviation. Excessively gesturing for Italians is the norm, for us it’s not very. Whistling everywhere: in the house and on the street is the norm for Bolivians, but for us a bad sign. There are thousands of similar examples.
The same applies to norms that have changed over time. Much that was accepted and cultivated in the USSR can rightfully be considered a strangeness. For example, thrift to things was a very laudable feature, and now it will be called "Plyushkina syndrome" - a clear sign of a schizoid.
If we see an ordinary person who lives a full life, works, travels once a year to rest, creates no difficulties for anyone, feels himself a full member of society, does not pose a threat to society, etc., then such a person is called normal.
If a person poses a threat to himself or to strangers, this is a deviation, a pathology.
The definition of personality psychotype is very simple - it is a set of character traits by which you can calculate the type of person. Psychologists have such skill, but it would not hurt ordinary people to learn a little about this theory.
We began to classify people according to psychological characteristics before our era. Remember: phlegmatic, melancholic, choleric, sanguine? Personality psychotypes, in contrast to types of temperament, divide people into five classes, and even thirteen.
There are many different psychological schools and, as a result, many classifications. For example, Carl Gustav Jung divides people into introverts and extroverts, Lichko identifies paranoids, epileptoids, sensitives, schizoids, etc. (a total of 13 personality types).
The external signs and features of the behavior, painted by these scientists, make it possible to compose a psychological portrait of a person from the first seconds of communication, to know how to behave with her so as not to run into conflict, not to offend or not be offended.
The professional, on the other hand, needs this knowledge in order to correctly determine the algorithm of actions when providing assistance or to protect the client from making possible mistakes, in the early stages to divert from pathology.
As mentioned above, there are a great many classifications of personality psychotypes. The description of some types of the same name is slightly different for each of the authors.
For example, Arkady Petrovich Egides identifies five personality types: paranoid, epileptoid, hysteroid, hyperthymus and schizoid. Viktor Viktorovich Ponomarenko supplements them with two radicals (as he calls psycho personality types): emotive and disturbing. Andrey Evgenievich Lichko identifies in addition to the above five more sensitivities, psychastenoid, hypotymic, asthenic, labile and cycloid, as well as unstable and conformal types.
Burno Mark Evgenevich identifies nine psychotypes, among them: cycloid (sanguine character), epileptoid (stress-authoritarian character), psychasthenic (anxious-doubting type), etc.
Below we consider some of them more specifically. As a basis we will take a description of the seven radicals of V.V. Ponomarenko. To determine personality psychotypes, this author uses practical and understandable observations.
The main distinguishing feature of a hysteroid is weak nervous system. All the forces go into making a first impression, after which it is depleted, so it can not concentrate on performing the same tasks for a long time. Successes occur spasmodically, with interruptions in the restoration of the nervous system.
To restore its rapidly depleted energy, it is nourished from others, drawing attention to itself in various ways.
The hysterical radical rejoices when they look at him and talk about him.
You should not expect great achievements from such a person, as his knowledge and skills are very superficial. Such personalities crave to know a little bit of everything in order to impress others at the right moment. But it is worth digging a little deeper, as it becomes clear that no serious knowledge is observed in humans.
The hysteroid radical spends most of its energy on creating an image. He is confident that he can solve any problem, even if there is no knowledge in this area. Often creates the illusion of well-being and success.
Such people do not have a core of personality, because they have been in a state of plasticine all their lives. A person who pays attention to clothing and appearance has a hysterical radical as part of his character.
The nervous system of such people is weakened. Aggression and stress that accumulate do not find a way out for a long time, and at one "fine" moment the epileptoid breaks down on others.
Aggression can be both verbal and physical. Physical and psychological stress adversely affect the state of a given personality type. External signs of fatigue are irritability and aggression. After a surge of emotions, a state of indifference sets in, which gives rise to a feeling of anxiety.
An epileptoid radical easily forgives itself for causing moral or physical harm to someone. Feels strong next to the weak and weak next to the strong.
The paranoid has a very strong nervous system, it is an energetic and efficient person. Such people always bring things to the end. Due to the fact that he is fixated on one idea, all his efforts go to achieve his goal, he is not sprayed, unlike a hysteroid.
Representatives of this psychotype like to set themselves complex and seemingly impossible tasks, but they always fulfill them. Thus, they prove that there are no limits to human capabilities.
Nevertheless, the paranoid understands that he will not succeed in realizing his plan alone, so he becomes a leader so that other people help him finish the job.
Paranoid thinks globally: everything that they do is for the good of society.
The main distinguishing feature of the emotional radical is sensitivity. Emotions and thinking compete for the field of consciousness. These individuals are often alarmists. Strong emotions can completely disable thinking. Overly sensitive to minor signals. If you are enthusiastic, then to tears, if you are upset, then also to tears. This happens regardless of their desire.
It is prone to empathy, so a pure emotive radical quickly burns out. Such people often associate themselves with art, as they know how to feel it subtly.
It is very comfortable to be close to such personalities, they are sociable and unobtrusive, they very subtly feel lies.
The main feature of this radical is a strong nervous system. Such a person is always full of energy, but, unfortunately, is not able to intelligently distribute it, in contrast to the paranoid. He does not have a single enduring goal.
Hypertim is often delighted with any information and is always in a good mood. Such a man-battery. Aggression and anxiety are practically not observed. He likes to do everything on the run and does not respond to public opinion.
Although there is no aggression, but excessive naturalness may look like rudeness, which becomes unpleasant for others. He does not welcome virtual communication, loves a living life.
The schizoid is very different from the previous types, as it lives in its own world, where its own constitution operates. These are incredibly creative individuals, capable of generating qualitatively new ideas that other radicals would never even think of.
They are a little out of this world, non-contact, renounce society in the name of new ideas. Communicating with them is difficult, but possible if you know a schizoid language. They are difficult to learn even simple patterns of behavior. A schizoid lives and thinks in creativity.
The nervous system of such a person is weak, she is constantly in a state of anxiety and fear. Afraid of changes in life and new things.
He tries to be as inconspicuous as gray, and also likes to hide. The space around the alarming radical is always neat, albeit dim.
To determine this personality psychotype, just look at its appearance: it is vestment in old comfortable things, lack of accessories and bright accents.
The appearance of radicals
Hysteroids like to dress brightly so that they can be seen from afar. Women wear bright jewelry and far from daytime makeup. The hysteroid follows fashion or rather imitates it.
Epileptoids do not share a festive and everyday style, all their clothes are for life. This is all because they do not know what a holiday is. Epileptoids of men like a short haircut and do not tolerate excess facial hair.
Paranoids choose practical, comfortable clothing and often duplicate it so as not to be tormented in the future with a choice. They love classic style not only in clothes.
The emotional radical has a very harmonious physique. By the way, the harmony of such people is present everywhere, since they can easily create it. Perfectly own a sense of style, but do not like too tight things.
Hypertim is a little inclined to fullness, loves light negligence and does not go in cycles in trifles.
The schizoid lacks a sense of style, it can combine incompatible. He does not bother with what to wear, takes the first thing he finds. Absolutely does not follow fashion, sloppy.
Anxious radical dresses so that it is not noticed. The wardrobe is dominated by black and gray colors. Women do not like jewelry, makeup is also not recognized. They go all the time in the same one, because they get used to things very much.
It is sometimes very difficult to determine your personality psychotype using these descriptions, since individuals with psychopathies often acted as objects of research. An average person can manifest several radicals or their individual components. Any personality psychotype with pronounced personality traits can use its accentuation for its own good or lose control over it, which leads to psychopathy or pathology. The main thing is to determine in time what radicals are present in your character in order to know what actions can become destructive for you.